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i for Quantitative Measurements of Atmospheric Turbulence" By Clyde W. Tombeugh 6 June 1950 I. The PolarisTrailing Telescope The present paper proposes a method of recording photographically the effects of atmospheric turbulence on a star image (known as unsteady"seeing" to astronomers). Some theoretical calculations, together with observing experience, indicate that the following method maybe a feasible one. It has three distinct advantages personal equation and visual estimates; {a, (3) permits accurate quantitative measure* displacement wiggles (random movement by re: respect to time. This would be far better old conventional visual scales of 0 to 5, i visual estimates, namely: (1) Eliminates '■) obtains a uniform record automatically} lents of image smear (from turbulence) and fraction)in terms of seconds of arc with re meaningful than the use of the An insight into  some calculations of design in which a 5inch aperture out the factors affecting t exposure but the resolution iature of this equipnei gn. A year ago, some and its cost may be obtained from 'eliminary computations were made, ' 573 inches was adopted to feel lis, the aperture was Ideal for .he length was too awkward. The idea is to direct the principal optical axis of the telescope exactly toward the north celestial pole of the heavens. The star, Polaris, is 59 minutes of arc from the pole. With the telescope rigidly fixed Polaris would describe a circular trail on a photographic plate at the rate of one revolution in a sidereal day. The following are some considerations affecting design of iment: 1. THE FOCAL LENGTH must be sufficiently long to i pheric turbulence perceptible on the photographic plat* long so as to involve difficulties from other factors known that the amplitude of turbulence exceeds 0.7 of nights. Suitable photographic plates are readily obtained. Indeed, there < ution. In the following equation, lei f= 206.265 r 294 inches (.7) (1000) ake the effects of atmos . let, it must not be too From experience, it is ne second of arc on most iolution of 1000 lines per inch re photographic emulsions of finer resol f equal the required focal length* 1 length. The angular since Polaris is almost So let us adopt 300 inches = 25 feet for t scale of Images will be 300 = 5.23 inches per degi HP 57.3 exactly one degree from the celestial pole, the are of the trailing would have a radius of 5.2 inches. The circumference of such a trail will equal 32.7 inches. This would allow a perceptible Image movement or time differentiation s sidereal day in seconds/(circumference of trail) (lines per inch resolution)* (2A)(60)(60). ' (32.7)(1000j
Object Description
Title  "Proposed Methods for Quantitative Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence" by C. W. Tombaugh, 1950 
Series  White Sands Proving Ground, Box 074, Folder 011 
Creator  Tombaugh, Clyde William, 19061997 
Subject  AstronomyObservations; Stars; Methodology; Charts, diagrams, etc. 
Digital Publisher  New Mexico State University Library 
Collection  NMSU Department of Astronomy: Clyde W. Tombaugh Papers 
Source  Scan produced from physical item held by the NMSU Library Archives & Special Collections Department 
Type  Text 
Format  image/tiff 
Language  eng 
Page Description
Title  Page 1 
Series  White Sands Proving Ground, Box 074, Folder 011 
Creator  Tombaugh, Clyde William, 19061997 
Subject  AstronomyObservations; Stars; Methodology 
Date Original  19500606 
Digital Publisher  New Mexico State University Library 
Collection  NMSU Department of Astronomy: Clyde W. Tombaugh Papers 
Digital Identifier  Ms0407pp074011_0010001.tif 
Source  Scan produced from physical item held by the NMSU Library Archives & Special Collections Department 
Type  Text 
Format  image/tiff 
Language  eng 
OCR  i for Quantitative Measurements of Atmospheric Turbulence" By Clyde W. Tombeugh 6 June 1950 I. The PolarisTrailing Telescope The present paper proposes a method of recording photographically the effects of atmospheric turbulence on a star image (known as unsteady"seeing" to astronomers). Some theoretical calculations, together with observing experience, indicate that the following method maybe a feasible one. It has three distinct advantages personal equation and visual estimates; {a, (3) permits accurate quantitative measure* displacement wiggles (random movement by re: respect to time. This would be far better old conventional visual scales of 0 to 5, i visual estimates, namely: (1) Eliminates '■) obtains a uniform record automatically} lents of image smear (from turbulence) and fraction)in terms of seconds of arc with re meaningful than the use of the An insight into  some calculations of design in which a 5inch aperture out the factors affecting t exposure but the resolution iature of this equipnei gn. A year ago, some and its cost may be obtained from 'eliminary computations were made, ' 573 inches was adopted to feel lis, the aperture was Ideal for .he length was too awkward. The idea is to direct the principal optical axis of the telescope exactly toward the north celestial pole of the heavens. The star, Polaris, is 59 minutes of arc from the pole. With the telescope rigidly fixed Polaris would describe a circular trail on a photographic plate at the rate of one revolution in a sidereal day. The following are some considerations affecting design of iment: 1. THE FOCAL LENGTH must be sufficiently long to i pheric turbulence perceptible on the photographic plat* long so as to involve difficulties from other factors known that the amplitude of turbulence exceeds 0.7 of nights. Suitable photographic plates are readily obtained. Indeed, there < ution. In the following equation, lei f= 206.265 r 294 inches (.7) (1000) ake the effects of atmos . let, it must not be too From experience, it is ne second of arc on most iolution of 1000 lines per inch re photographic emulsions of finer resol f equal the required focal length* 1 length. The angular since Polaris is almost So let us adopt 300 inches = 25 feet for t scale of Images will be 300 = 5.23 inches per degi HP 57.3 exactly one degree from the celestial pole, the are of the trailing would have a radius of 5.2 inches. The circumference of such a trail will equal 32.7 inches. This would allow a perceptible Image movement or time differentiation s sidereal day in seconds/(circumference of trail) (lines per inch resolution)* (2A)(60)(60). ' (32.7)(1000j 